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Lawrence Mobile Internal Medicine Consulting Services, PLLC

Yuri A Lawrence, DVM, PH.D., MA, MS, Dipl.ACVIM(SAIM)

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Cystoscopy is defined as the visualization of the vagina, urethral opening, urethra, bladder and ureteral openings. Direct visualization, magnification, and optimal lighting are just a few of the advantages over invasive surgical procedures. Indications for performing cystoscopy include incontinence, chronic urinary tract infections, neoplasia, trauma, hematuria, stranguria, pollakiuria and cystic and/or urethral calculi. General Anesthesia is required for this procedure.